The Buddha teaches us to know our duty. The duty of humanity is to practice Dhamma. The duty of humans is to teach humans to be human.

So we should look to ourself first, we should consider ourself first, we should teach ourself first. If we waste our life we cannot buy it again. If we let our life suffer, we waste it. The Buddha teaches us nothing else than to extinguish dukkha (suffering), but when we don’t know we seek its cessation outside ourself. But dukkha of that kind doesn’t exist.

The teachings of the world-teachers are like all the leaves in the forest, but those leaves that can be used as medicine are few. Don’t take them all, together with their roots and trunks. When it comes to the practice of kammatthana (meditation) or vipassana (insight), we should take only that which can prevent dukkha from arising, can extinguish dukkha at its source, can destroy moha (delusion). So we take only the heart. The heart of the teaching I am talking about is to have sati (awareness), to have panna (knowing), to see thought. Whenever thought arises see it, know it, understand it. Know it in whatever manner it comes, and know how to prevent it from deluding us.

Wherever we are, that is where we must practice. Nobody else can do it for us. Wherever we go, we are the one that goes. Wherever we stay, we are the one that stays. Sit, eat, drink, sleep, we alone do it. If we are a person who keeps precepts or gives charity, we can practice. And if we are somebody who never does these things, we can also practice. To help others is good, but it is good only in a worldly way. To practice developing sati – samadhi – panna (awareness –steadiness of mind – knowing), however, is good in every way. So before you teach others you should train yourself, until you clearly and really see, know and understand. When you really see, really know, and really are, then you can teach others comfortably.

So this practice, we have to learn it ourself, we have to teach ourself, we have to see ourself, we have to know ourself, we have to understand ourself, we have to do ourself. So you needn’t be interested in others; just do this movement-practice a lot, do it as nothing special, do it without hurry, without doubt, without speculation, do it without expectation of result. Be simple, and just move, one movement at a time, and know. When you don’t know, let it pass; when you know, let it pass. Sometimes you know, sometimes you don’t know: so it goes –but know. When the body moves, know it. When the mind moves, know it. This practice is a twenty-four-hours-a-day practice, so relax and just be natural, just be normal. Set up the mind to really practice, and practice comfortably.

The method of developing sati in daily life:

When we get on a bus or boat, and are seated properly, we turn the palm up, we turn the palm down, we move the hand, or stretch the hand, or run the thumb over the fingertips; and blinking eyes, breathing, swallowing saliva, and so on, be aware of these movements. This is the way to have awareness returning to ourself. When thought arises be aware of it, and detach it.
The method of developing sati when we are at home:

We can sit with both legs gathered back to one side, or cross-legged, or in a chair, or we can sit with legs outstretched. We can stand or lie down doing the rhythmic practice too. When we walk cankama (meditating while walking back and forth: a length of eight to twelve paces will do) we must not move the arms; fold the arms across the chest, or clasp the hand behind the back. The method of practice in a sitting position is shown in the stylized illustrations that follow:

1. Rest the hands palms down on the thighs.
2. Turn the right hand onto its edge, be aware.
3. Raise the right hand up, be aware, then stop.
4. Lower the right hand to rest on the abdomen, be aware, then stop.
5. Turn the left hand onto its edge, be aware, then stop.
6. Raise the left hand up, be aware, then stop.
7. Lower the left hand to rest on the right hand, be aware, then stop.
8. Slide the right hand up to rest on the chest, be aware, then stop.
9. Move the right hand out, be aware, then stop.
10. Lower the right hand onto its edge on the thigh, be aware, then stop.
11. Face the right palm down, be aware, then stop.
12. Slide the left hand up to rest on the chest, be aware, then stop.
13. Move the left hand out, be aware, then stop.
14. Lower the left hand onto its edge on the thigh, be aware, then stop.
15. Face the left palm down, be aware, then stop.

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We must know roop-nahm (body-mind), must know roop-acting – nahm-acting, must know roop-disease – nahm-disease. There are two kinds of roop-disease – nahm-disease. With diseases of the body, like headache, stomachache and wounds, we have to go and see the doctor at the hospital. The disease of the mind is dosa – moha – lobha (anger – delusion – greed). For a cure we must depend upon this method of developing sati (awareness).
Then we must know sammuti (supposition). Whatever sammuti is in the world, know it to the end.
Then we must know sasana ("religion"), we must know Buddhasasana ("Buddhism"). Sasana is everyone without exception. Sasana means the teaching of one that knows. Know Buddhasasana. Buddha means one that knows, one that is awake, one that is blessed with Dhamma, which is sati – samadhi – panna (awareness – setting up the mind – knowing). So we develop panna.
Then we must know papa (sin), must know punna (merit). Papa is dark, stupid, not knowing how it is. Punna is clever, knowing, knowing everything. Whoever doesn’t know is called somebody who still doesn’t have punna.
End of Stage 1. There will arise an obstacle at this point, because we attach to the knowledge of vipassana-upakkilesa. Vipassana-upakkilesa (defilement of insight) is when we know outside ourself endlessly. We must withdraw. We must not enter thought.

Use sati to see thought. When thought arises know it, see it, understand it, and touch it. As soon as thought arises cut it away immediately. Do it like a cat pouncing on a rat. Or like a boxer that, climbing into the ring, must box immediately. The boxer needn’t pay respect to the teacher. Lose or win, the boxer must box. We must not wait for anyone. Or like digging a well. When we find water, it is our duty to scoop out the mud, scoop out the mire, scoop out the water until it is finished. Scoop out the old water to the end. Now new water from inside will come out. We must stir at the edge of the well, clean the edge of the well, clean out the mud, and clean out the mire. Do it often. The water will become clean by itself. When the water is clean, anything that falls into the well we will know, see and understand immediately. The cutting out of thought is the same. The quicker we cut, the better it is.

Then let us see vatthu (thingness), see paramattha (mind-touchable), see akara (changingess). Vatthu means things that exist in the world, everything in humans and the mind of humans and creatures. Paramattha means things that really exist, we are seeing, having, being it, right now in front of us, touchable with the mind. Akara means changingess. Suppose we have a full can of dye, originally of one hundred percent quality. If we dye cloth, it will adhere to the material one hundred percent. When we know, we see, we can touch with the mind, the same full can of dye but the quality declines. Take it to dye cloth; it will no longer adhere to the material. This we must really see, must really know.

Then see dosa – moha – lobha.

Then let us see vedana – sanna – sankhara – vinnana (feeling – percept – conceiving – knowingness), see them, know them, and touch them. Really understand this. We needn’t doubt.

Now there will arise a little piti (rapture), but piti is an obstacle in the higher practice of Dhamma. We must not be interested in that piti: we must come to see thought. This is the beginning of the touchable object of this method of developing sati, of one that has panna.

Continue to see thought. There will occur knowledge, or nana, or nana-panna (the knowledge of full direct awareness-knowing).

See, know, and understand kilesa – tanha – upadana – kamma ("defilement"/ stickiness – "craving"/ heaviness – attachment – action). Therefore attachment will lose its taste, loosen its grip and fade, just as poor quality dye cannot adhere to material.

There will again arise piti. We must not be interested in that piti. Uproot satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

Continue to see thought, to see the mind that is thinking. There will occur a kind of nana, to see, to know, and to understand sila (normality), silakkhandha samadhikkhandha – pannakkhandha (the gathering together, containing of all normality – setting up the mind – knowing), or adhisilasikkha –adhicittasikkha – adhipannasikkha (the training in the higher ethics – higher mind – higher knowing). Khandha means to contain or to fight. Sikkha means to steamroller into powder or to pulverize to extinction.

So sila is the tool to get rid of crude kilesa. Crude kilesa is dosa – moha – lobha, kilesa – tanha – upadana – kamma. When these lose their taste, fade, and loosen, then sila occurs.

Samadhi is the tool to get rid of median kilesa. Median kilesa is calmness.

Which is to see, to know and to understand kamasava – bhavasava – avijjasava (under the control of sensuality – being – not-knowing), because this kilesa is median kilesa, which makes the mind calm.

This is one of the objects of this method of developing sati. When we know and see it this way, we will come to know dana (generosity, giving), keeping precepts, and doing kammatthana (meditation) from every angle and every corner.

There will arise nana-panna in the mind.

For a bad bodily action, know how it is papa-kamma (harmful, benighted action), and, if there really is a hell, into which level we shall fall.

For a bad verbal action, know how it is papa-kamma, and if there really is a hell, into which level we shall fall.

For a bad mental action, know how it is papa-kamma, and, if there really is a hell, into which level we shall fall.

For bad bodily, bad verbal and bad mental actions together, know how they are papa-kamma, and, if there really is a hell, into which level we shall fall.

For a good bodily action, know how it is punna-kamma (beneficial, wise action), and, if there really is a heaven or nibbana, to which level we shall go.

For a good verbal action, know how it is punna-kamma, and, if there really is a heaven or nibbana, to which level we shall go.

For a good mental action, know how it is punna-kamma, and, if there really is a heaven or nibbana, to which level we shall go.

For good bodily, good verbal and good mental actions together, know how they are punna-kamma, and, if there really is a heaven or nibbana, to which level we shall go.

End of the object of this method of developing sati. It will be the greatest, most wonderful unfolding, which is in the mind of everyone without exception. If we still do not know it now, when the breathing is nearly finished we most certainly must know. One that is developing sati, developing panna, has nana and knows. But somebody who doesn’t develop sati doesn’t develop panna, when the breathing is nearly finished it will be the same, but they will not know, because they have no nana. To clearly know and really see, not just to memorize or recognize, to know with nana-panna of the real developing of sati, is to be able to assure oneself. It is said that at the end nana will arise. Be careful about abnormalities that may occur. Be aware of yourself. Don’t attach to happiness or to anything that arises. Don’t take happiness, don’t take suffering, but just return to reviewing the object often, from roop-nahm until the end of the object, level by level, and know that the object has steps and stages.

Certainly, if you develop sati correctly, the longest time for the practice will be no more than three years, the median time one year, and the quickest time one day to ninety days. We do not have to talk about the fruit of this practice. There is really no dukkha.




There are many different methods of kammatthana. I have practiced many, many methods, but those methods did not lead to panna. Now, the method that we are practicing is the method that directly leads to panna. Anyone can practice it, if they know the correct method. When panna arises you will know, see and understand by yourself. So the method of turning the hand up and down is the method to build up sati, to develop panna. When it has been practiced thoroughly, it will be abundant and spontaneous.
Anyone without exception can practice it, whether they are a child or adult, whatever work they do, whatever religions they profess or beliefs they hold, they can practice. Everyone has body-mind. Body is the matter that we can see with the eyes. We can call it roop. But the mind we cannot see with the eyes, we cannot touch with the hands. It can be called nahm. These two things are the same.
When we build up sati, develop sati, panna will arise and know by itself. Just have the thing that is already there grow up. The thing that is not real, we don’t have to do it. When we know roop-nahm we will know everything, and we can really untie dukkha. For example, we will not attach to sammuti. After knowing that, we practice more awareness, doing the arm-movement as I advised you. Now we do it faster. Thought is the quickest thing, it is quicker than electricity.
When satipanna has increased, it will know, see and understand dosa – moha – lobha. When we know it, dukkha in the mind will decrease. Most people misunderstand, and think that dosa, lobha and moha are normal. But one that knows says that dosa – moha – lobha is dukkha, ugly, dirty, so he or she doesn’t let that thing come close. This is called knowing one’s own life-mind, which is clean, illuminated and calm. When we know this point, it has great potential, like a small stream descending to become a big river.
So the method of practice is to have more and more awareness, knowing the postures of the body, and those minor movements like blinking, looking to the left and right, inhaling and exhaling. All these movements can be seen with the eyes. But we cannot see thought with the eyes. We can only know it and see it with samadhi – sati – panna. The samadhi I am talking about is not sitting with eyes closed. Samadhi means setting up the mind to be aware of ourself. When we have awareness of ourself continuously, that is called samadhi, or it can be called sati. When the mind thinks we will know thought immediately, and thought will become shorter and shorter. It is like plus and minus, increase and decrease. If we talk there is much to say, but I would like all of you to practice the movement, to practice by yourself through the method of movement. The fruit will come by itself.





The talks collected in this book contain an abundance of Pali terms. Luangpor Teean freely used Pali terms, both in discourses and guidance and in naming experiences that occurred in his practice, and for the most part his use of these terms corresponded more or less to their standard meanings – many of the terms have indeed been absorbed into the Thai language – although sometimes he would use technical terms in an individualistic and non-traditional way.

This glossary adds to and expands upon the brief translation of technical terms contained in the preceding text, and in so doing sometimes provides explication of the meanings of Pali terms that ranges more widely than Luangpor Teean’s use of those terms. This glossary would therefore best be regarded as providing a background against which Luangpor Teean’s use of technical Pali terms might be highlighted or clarified. Nevertheless, since it constitutes a major editorial intrusion, the glossary has been added to the preceding talks with some reluctance, and it should be used with circumspection; strictly speaking, the talks should be self-illuminating.

Single quotation marks enclose the words of Luangpor Teean.

Some of the Pali terms are given with their Thai versions in brackets; these Thai words are transliterated in a way consistent with customary English pronunciation, with only the following vowel sounds requiring definition: "ah" as in "father"; "o" as in "Tom"; "a" as in "cup"; "oo" as in "book" (except for roop,wherethe vowel sound is that of "moon"). 

ākāra [ahgahn]: Condition, state: property, quality, attribute; manner, mode, way; appearance, form, sign. In Thai, the word is used to mean; symptom, condition (as of one’s health); manner, outward expression, attitude, behavior. In the seeing of vatthu – paramattha – ākāra it means that ‘everything in the world and in us can change’. 

ānāpānasati: Meditation in which one focuses attention and mindfulness on the feeling, at the tip of the nose, of the breath naturally going in and out, and the mind becomes progressively stilled and then serves as a refined object for investigation and penetration. 

anattā: Not self; without a "soul"; the fact that experience cannot be appropriated, cannot be put under mastery; the fact that there in no thing that is the subject of experience; "even oneself is not one’s own" – the Awakened One. 

anicca: Impermanence; not stable; all conditions are necessarily subject to change, arising, changing while standing and then disappearing. 

arahat: The fully and finally awakened one; the individual that has reached the extinction of dukkha, the end of being; the individual that has "done what had to be done" – the Awakened One. 

ārammana [ahrom]: Object; a support, stay, basis, ground; the object of awareness, of knowledge, of sense. In Thai the meaning extends to: mental object, preoccupation, emotion, disposition, mood. 

ariya: Noble, distinguished; one that has evolved to true humanity, has been altered through obtaining insight into things as they actually are: one that has seen the cessation of dukkha, and therefore knows what needs to be done. 

āsava: Taints: a deep level of distortion in the mind; outflows: defilements flowing out from deep in the mind into thoughts, feelings, emotions, speech, and actions; mental intoxication; mental fermentation, eruption, discharge (as from a sore), corruptions, pollutants.

kāmāsava-bhavāsava-avijjāsava: The taints, outflows, fermentations of, the intoxication of sensuality – being – nescience; ‘under the control of those things that make the mind calm – under the control of being and suffering – under the control of not-knowing’. 

attha: Meaning, sense, essence; aim, goal, purpose; welfare, gain, advantage, fruitful conduct, acts productive of benefit. 

avijjā: Nescience; counterfeit knowledge, wrong knowledge, being deceived; not knowing, ignorance, unawareness; an ignorance of the nature of existence so profound as to itself be beyond awareness. 

bhava: Being; the state of existence; being the experience or the subject of experience; the experience "I am this, I am that, I am…" 
cañkama [jong-grom]: Practicing meditation while walking to and fro. 

Dhamma: [tamma, tam]: Actuality; nature; the way things are in and of themselves; the truth of nature, the inherent nature of and actual process of existence, of experience. By extension, "the Dhamma" is used to refer to any doctrine that teaches the way things are in themselves, the truth of nature, and the way to awaken to actuality. 
dosa: Hatred; anger; all negative thoughts and emotions, all forms of mental resistance: dislike, aversion, malice, irritability, and so on. 

dukkha [took]: Suffering, affliction, sorrow, misery, disease, stress, (inner) conflict, being oppressed; literally, "hard to endure, difficult to bear"; the inherent unsatisfactoriness of all conditions; the burden of personal existence; the hopelessness of the unenlightened person’s situation.

dukkha-aniccam-anattā: Suffering – impermanence – not self; ‘unbearable – unstable – uncontrollable’. 

kāma [gahm]: Sense desire; sensuality; seeking and indulging in sensual pleasures; the hunger for sensual experience, for sense "input"; ‘those things that makes the mind calm’, the pacifying of the mind by sense experience, by attaching to sense experience, by attaching to the calmness that arises from unawareness of the problem of one’s own existence. 

kamma [gam]: Action; the Buddha defines action as intention; intentional action; volition. In Thai, gam often implies bad actions, which entail unfortunate consequences. 

kammatthāna [gamma-tahn]: Literally, "work-place", "working-ground", "basis for action"; basis for mediation practice; meditation subject; ground for mental culture; that aspect of an experience that is the object of intelligent awareness. In Thai, the act of mediation or contemplation. 

khandha [kan]: Aggregate, heap, bulk, mass, totality, group; category, all that is included under "…". In Thai, vessel, container; ‘vessel, container, to contain, to fight [against kilesa]’.

sïlakhandha: All that belongs to moral behavior; the gathering together, the containing of all ethical behavior, of all normality; sanity, naturalness.

samādhikkhandha: The gathering together, the containing of all steadiness and stability of mind, of all setting up of the mind, and therefore the eradicating of attachment to things that make the mind calm.

paññākkhandha: The practice of the attainment of the highest knowledge; the gathering together, the containing of all insight knowledge, of thoroughly and completely knowing and seeing all action, mental, verbal, and bodily. 

kilesa [gileht]: Defilement, corruption, impurity, impairment; all the things that defile, dull darken and sadden the mind; ‘stickiness’ in the mind. 

lobha: Greed; lust, covetousness, desire; all forms of attraction, of the mind inclining towards things with wanting. 

moha: Delusion; confusion, dullness, stupidity, bewilderment, unawareness; being unaware of what is happening here and now, especially unawareness of experience that is neither pleasant nor unpleasant. 

nana [yahn]: Knowledge; wisdom, insight; higher knowledge; insight knowledge.

nana-paññā [yahn-panyah]: The transforming, liberating knowledge that comes from the accumulation of direct awareness-knowing of oneself, of experience, of existence; the knowledge arising from full, complete self-awareness, self knowing. 

nibbāna [nippahn]: Extinction of dukkha; extinction of attachment, of craving, of dosamoha

lobha; extinguishing the fire of being; ending the subtle conceit, "I(am)". 

paññatti [banyat]: Designation, name, concept, idea; making know, declaring, proclaiming, manifesting, enacting. In Thai, the term means law, legal act, rule, regulation, to prescribe.

sammuti-paññatti [sammoot-banyat]: The convention of supposing; the designation of the mundane or conventional world, that which is conjured into being by the mind.

paramattha-paññatti [paramat-banyat]: The designation of the sphere of the real, the actual, of what can be touched by the mind.

attha-paññatti [atta-banyat]; ‘The very deep meaning of the Dhamma, so deep as to be very difficult to know.’

ariya-paññatti [ariya-banyat]: The designating, making known of experience in which dukkha has been extinguished; agreement between those that have become true humans. 

pañña: Knowing, understanding, wisdom; insight, intuitive wisdom, knowing by direct seeing outside of thought, seeing things as they are without conceiving; the knowing that results from dwelling in awareness of oneself. 

pāpa [bahb]: Evil, bad, wicked; demerit; "sin";‘stupidity’,‘dark, stupid, not knowing how it is’. 

paramattha [paramat]: The highest good; ultimate, absolute truth; the real, the actual; the true, unchangeable, invariable; ‘the touching of things with the mind’; ‘everything that really exists in the world and in ourself, seeing it, having it, being it, right now in front of us, touchable with the mind’. 

paticcasamuppāda: Dependent co arising: "But let be the past, let be the future, I shall set you for the Teaching: when there is this, this is, with the arising of this, this arises; when there is not this, this is not, with cessation of this, this ceases" – the Awakened One. 

phra: Noble; venerable; worthy of reverence and veneration. This Thai word (pronounced phra) is derived from the Pali vara, noble, splendid, best, excellent. 

pïti: Rapture, exhilaration, joy, excited happiness. 

puñña [boon]: Merit, inner worth; virtue, righteousness; the sense of well being and contentment that results from having acted rightly or well; ‘clever, knowing, knowing everything’, ‘awareness, knowing oneself clearly’.

puñña-kamma [boon-gam]: Beneficial action; meritorious action; acting with awareness, with insight, acting with seeing thought. 

roop-nahm [Pali rupa-nāma]: ‘Body-mind’; form and name. In Pali, rupa is inertia, that is to say matter, substance, and therefore behavior, while nāma, name, is the designation, or appearance, of that behavior. 

sacca: Truth; true, certain.

sammmuti-sacca: Conventional truth; truth formed by general opinion and agreement; that which is generally received as truth by the general consent of humanity.

paramattha-sacca: Truth that one contacts directly and individually; the truth of present awareness; that which is truth independently of its being supported by the authority of humanity.

attha-sacca: The deep truth, understood by few.

ariya-sacca: The noble truth, the truth that, being seen, alters one fundamentally, radically and irrevocably. 

samādhi: Concentration; focusing attention, one-pointedness of mind; mental discipline, ‘setting up the mind [to see our own mind, to see our own work, to see thought]’, ‘steadiness of mind’, stability and firmness of mind; practicing the developing of awareness by providing awareness with a single object at any one time and maintaining awareness. 

samatha: Calmness; tranquility; quietude of heart, calm, of one kind, can be attained by one-pointedness of mind, singleness of mind; that is, dwelling continuously on a (relatively) unchanging meditation object, training to attain absorbed concentration of mind; calm of another kind, peace, comes from developing the seeing of existence as it actually is, which gives rise to detachment, dispassion, disenchantment, and ultimately to release. 

sammuti [sammoot]: In Pali, convention, agreement, general consent, general use, general opinion, conventional understanding; selection, choice; authorization, permission. In Thai, the primary meaning is "supposing", and also: usages commonly designated or agreed upon; conjuring into being with the mind; to assume, to make believe.

 sañkhāra: (i) Determinations, conditions: things that determine or conditions other things to be as they are; "all conditions are necessarily impermanent, all conditions are necessarily a burden" – the Awakened One. (ii) One of the five aspects of an experience [rupa-vedanā-saññā-sañkhāra-

viññāna]; intention; conceiving, constructing, formulating and fashioning thoughts and other aspects of (mental) life. 

saññā: Percept; perception, In Thai, the meaning extends to: memory, recognition, discrimination, mark, concept. 

sāsana: Advice; instruction, teaching; message; doctrine; order, command; ‘the individual, every individual’. In Thai, religion.

Buddhasāsana: The Buddha’s Dispensation; the instruction of the Awakened One; ‘satipaññā that enters and knows the mind’. 

sati: Awareness; recollection; detached watching; mindfulness; reflexion; calling to mind, presence of mind; alertness, collectedness, not forgetting oneself; reflective awareness of oneself, of experience-existence here-and-now.

satipaññā: Awareness-knowing; knowing that arises from the development of awareness; intelligence with regard to the fact and nature of existence.

satipatthāna [satipatahn]: The foundations, bases, grounds, objects of sati;the four aspects of existence-experience – body, feeling, condition of mind, ideas and images – to which awareness is applied in pursuing the development of self-study for the purpose of curing the fundamental affliction of existence. 

sikkhā: Training; study; discipline.

adhisïlasikkhā, adhicittasikkhā, adhipaññāsikkhā: The training in the higher ethics, the higher normality; the training in the higher mind, the higher heart; the training in the higher knowing, the higher understanding. 

sïla [seen]: (Right) conduct; virtue; moral precepts; verbal and bodily action in accordance with

Dhamma; character, habits, customs; ‘normality’, nature, naturalness; ‘instead of a person taking care of ethical precepts, sïla – normality – takes care of and protects the person’. 

tanhā: Craving; thirst; essentially unsatisfiable wanting(hunger); ‘heaviness’. 

upādāna [oopahtahn]: Holding; attachment, grasping, clinging; to attach continuously by taking all experience personally. 

upekkhā: Indifference; neutrality, impartiality, detachment; equanimity; disinterestedness. 

vatthu [wattoo]: Thing, object, substance, matter; grounded in, founded on, made a basis of ; occasion, cause, plot or subject, story, narrative; ‘everything that exists inside and outside the mind’, ‘things that exist in the world, everything in the world and in ourself’. 

vedanā: Feeling, agreeable, disagreeable and neutral. In Thai, feelings of pleasure, pain and indifference that result from the mind’s savoring of its objects. 

vijjā: Science; true knowledge of the nature of existence; being undeceived about the way things really are. 

viññāna [winyahn]: Consciousness; cognizance; knowingness. In the Buddha’s Teaching, viññāna is neither a thing nor an action. 

vipassanā : Literally, "clear seeing"; to see clearly the true nature of personal existence; liberating, transforming insight into the universal characteristic of experience; ‘to see clearly, to know really, clear insight, a complete uprooting’.  



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